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Citation & Format Guide: Websites

Website Content

Website with known author and date

Footnote Format

 1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Web Page,” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics, publication date and/or access date if available, URL.


#. Richard G. Heck, Jr., “About the Philosophical Gourmet Report” last modified August 5, 2016.


Heck, Jr., Richard G. “About the Philosophical Gourmet Report” last modified August 5, 2016.

For more coverage of how to cite web content see CMOS 14.205, 14.206, 14.207, 14.208.

Website content with unknown author

#.  "Privacy Policy," Google Policies & Principles, last modified July 27, 2012, accessed January 3, 2013,

Shortened Footnote

#. Google, "Privacy Policy."


Google. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified April 17, 2017.

For more coverage of how to cite web content see CMOS 14.20514.20614.20714.208.

Online Multimedia (e.g. Podcast)

  #. Firstname Lastname of Performer, Writer or Creator, Title of Text, indication of format/medium, running time, publication date, URL.


Katie Bouman, “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole,” filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA, video, 12:51,

Shortened footnote

#.  Bouman, “Black Hole.”


Bouman, Katie. “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole.” Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51.


 1. Sean Cole and Ira Glass, “622: Who You Gonna Call?,” August 4, 2017, in This American Life, produced by WBEZ, podcast, MP3 audio,1:00:27, accessed October 31, 2017,


Cole, Sean and Ira Glass. “622: Who You Gonna Call?.” Produced by WBEZ. This American Life.August 4, 2017. Podcast, MP3 audio,1:00:27. accessed October 31, 2017.

For more coverage of how to cite web content see CMOS 14.20514.20614.20714.208.

YouTube Video


#. Firstname Lastname of Performer, Writer, Creator, or Channel name, "Title of Video," YouTube video, running time, upload date, URL.

#. NativLang, "Why West Africa keeps inventing writing systems," YouTube video, 10:06, April 30, 2021,

Shortened footnote

#. NativLang, "Why West Africa."


Lastname, Firstname of Performer, Writer, Creator, or Channel name. "Title of Video." YouTube video, running time. Upload date. URL.

NativLang. "Why West Africa keeps inventing writing systems." YouTube video, 10:06. April 30, 2021.


Blogs are cited like newspaper articles and are generally not included in the bibliography unless you cite the blog frequently.


J. Robert Lennon, “How Do You Revise?,” Ward Six (blog), September 16, 2010 (8:39 a.m.),


Blog comments

If you discuss a blog comment, you can cite it in the text in reference to the related blog post. The footnote format for a blog comment would include: the name of the commenter, the date of the comment, followed by the shortened form of the related blog post.

Jim, February 16, 2017, comment on Germano, “Futurist Shock,”

For more coverage of how to cite web content see CMOS 14.20514.20614.20714.208.

Using Stable URLs for Citations of Websites

A bibliographic citation is meant to give the reader all of the information she needs to find and access the source being cited.  When citing a website, that means including the web address, otherwise known as the URL or Uniform Resource Locator.  Citing websites can be tricky.  While many works on the internet are freely open to anyone, many others are only available to verified users with a login or users who pay to get access to something behind a paywall.  If you are citing a source that requires a login or is behind a paywall, you MUST use what is variously called a stable URL or permalink.  While a stable URL/permalink will not necessarily give every reader access to the article or content, they will at least be directed to a page that shows that the article is indeed there.  If you instead put a non-stable URL, like the URL from the top browser bar, then a reader who types in or click on that link will not be directed to that article.

One specific type of stable URL is a DOI (Digital Object Identifier), a URL which is permanently linked to that object.  Anyone making online content can register their content with the DOI organization.  DOIs all begin or

Many article databases note a stable URL or include a tool for finding one.  On JSTOR, a stable URL and DOI can be found on the left side of the page when you click on an article.  On EBSCO Academic Search Complete, there is an option for obtaining a permalink at the bottom of the right-hand column; look for the chain-link icon.   Click on it and the permalink will appear above the article title.